The definition of good governance as synergy and constructive relationship between the state, private sector and society. The characteristics of good governance (UNDP within the LAN and the CPC and Development 2000) are:
- Participation. Every citizen has a voice in decision-making, either directly mapun through intermediary institutions that represent the interests of legitimacy. Such participation is built on freedom of association and speech and berpartsipasi constructively. This participation can be seen from the actions partake of the level of staff to the competent authorities in the planning, implementation, monitoring activities and the right delivery of an opinion in any process of policy formulation and regulation, the process of formulating development strategies, program development, budgeting, procurement, and monitoring.
- Rule of law. The legal framework must be implemented fairly and indiscriminately, particularly to human rights law. Rule of law is seen from the right and the authority that supports the establishment of the rule of law by conducting education and socialization regulations and legislation in force, thus decreasing corruption and lawlessness, rising (speed and certainty) the law enforcement process, the applicable norms in society at law enforcer.
- Transparency. Transparency is built on the basis of free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly received by those in need. The information must be understandable and can be monitored. Transparency is seen from providing complete information about the policies and services provided to the community, utilizing various channels of communication through brochures, leaflets, pengumuan in newspapers, radio, and telivisi locally, thereby increasing awareness and knowledge society to governance, and reduced violation of rules legislation.
- Responsiveness. Institutions or processes should try to serve all stakeholders. Responsiveness is seen of establishing communication channels to accommodate the aspirations of the community through public forums, talk shows hotline services, and make a complaint procedure, thus increasing public confidence in government, growing public awareness, increasing the number of people who participate in regional development and a reduction in the number of complaints.
- Equity. All citizens, have the opportunity to improve or maintain their well being. Equity is seen from the right and authority equal treatment regardless of any in providing services, thus creating mutual trust between the government, the public through the provision of information and ensure ease in obtaining accurate information and adequate.
- Effectiveness and efficiency. Processes and institutions produce in accordance with what has been outlined using available resources as possible. Effectiveness and efficiency seen from ensuring the public service by using the available resources optimally, responsible, satisfaction of society in service, and supervision of rational and transparent, so that increase wellbeing and added value of the community, reduced aberration expenditures, reduced operating costs service.
- Accountability. The decision-makers in government, the private sector and the community are responsible to the public and institutions of stakeholders. Accountability depends on the organization and the nature of the decisions made, whether the decision is internal or external to the interests of the organization. Accountability is seen from the realization of the condition of all policies at all levels can be justified and in accordance with established procedures, so expect increased satisfaction and public confidence in the government, growing public awareness, and community interests.
- Strategic vision. Leaders and the public should have the perspective of good governance and human development are broad and far ahead in line with what is required for such development. Strategic vision is seen from the existence of a clear vision and strategy with the corresponding legal force and the support of all levels of employees of the Finance Department Kepahiang District Council Secretariat, so that compatibility between planning and budgeting in order to participate in regional development.
Meanwhile, according to Sedarmayanti (2009) The main elements of good governance principles namely:
- Accountability (accountability) politics, consisting of:
- Political accountability, ie the replacement mechanism for officials or businessmen regularly, there is no attempt to build monoloyalitas systematically, and the definition and handling of clear violations powers under the framework of law enforcement
- Public accountability, namely the existence of restrictions and a clear assignment of accountability. Accountability refers to the development of a sense of public responsibility for ken decision makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations as well as to the owner (stakeholders). Specialized in bureaucracy, accountability is an effort to create a system for monitoring and controlling the quality of performance, inefficiency and destruction of resources, and transparency ma, finance, procurement, accounting, and of pooling of resources.
- Transparency (openness) can be seen three aspects:
- Policy to be open to scrutiny
- Access to information so that people can reach every aspect of government policy
- Application of the principle of checks and balances between the executive and legislative). The purpose of transparency build mutual trust between the government and the public in which the government must provide accurate information to the public in need. Especially reliable information related to legal issues, regulations, and the results achieved in the governance process; a mechanism that allows the public to access the relevant information; the rules governing local government obligation to provide information to the public; and foster a culture in society to scrutinize the policies that produced the local government.
- Participation (involving the public, especially their aspirations)
In the formulation of a plan or policy decisions made by the government, also be seen in public involvement in the implementation of government policies and plans, including monitoring and evaluation. Involvement is not in principle terwakilnya aspirations of the people through representatives in Parliament, but direct involvement. Participation in the sense of encouraging all citizens to use their right to convey directly or indirectly, proposals and opinions in the decision making process. Especially given the freedom of the people to assemble, organize, and participate actively in determining the future.
- Rule of Law Officers Bureaucracy
Means that there is clarity and predictability of the bureaucracy to the private sector; and in terms of civil society means that there is the necessary legal framework to guarantee the rights of citizens in enforcing government accountability. Concept requirements of other legislation:
- The rule of law: every action of the state must be based on law and not based on unilateral action by the powers possessed.
- Legal certainty: beside closely related to the rule of law also requires the assurance that the problem is set in a clear, firm and not duplicative, and contrary to other legislation.
- Responsive law: the law must be able to absorb the aspirations of the public at large and capable mengakomudasi needs of the community and not made for the benefit of elites.
- Law enforcement is consistent and non-discriminatory: the effort that requires the sanction, running mechanism of sanctions, as well as human resources / law enforcement who have integrity.
- Judicial independence: the effectiveness of embedding the principles of justice as an essential requirement embodiment of the rule of law.
Further according Sedarmayanti (2009) from the aspect of government, good governance can be seen through aspects:
1) Legal / policy, aimed at the protection of freedom of social, political and economic.
2) Competence administration and transparency. The ability to plan and implement efficiently, the ability to simplify the organization, discipline and the creation of administrative models, the disclosure of information.
3) Decentralization. Regional decentralization and deconcentration in the department.
4) The creation of a competitive market. Completion of the market mechanism, improving the role of small businesses and other segments of the private sector, deregulation, and the government’s ability to manage macro-economic policy.